Environmental Factors Affecting Plant Growth
Plant growth and geographic distribution are greatly affected by the environment. If any environmental factor is less than ideal, it limits a plant''s growth and/or distribution. For example, only plants adapted to limited amounts of water can live in deserts. Environmental factors that affect plant growth include light, temperature, water, humidity, and nutrition. It is important to understand how these factors affect plant growth and development. With a basic understanding of these factors, you may be able to manipulate plants to meet your needs, whether for increased leaf, flower, or fruit production. By recognizing the roles of these factors, you also will be better able to diagnose plant problems caused by environmental stress.
Environmental impact on production
Weather and climate influence both farm animal production and agronomic production. There are many differences, some obvious and some subtle, in the way animals and plants respond directly and indirectly to given environments, however. It explores the applications of weather and climate information to sustain or improve on-farm animal performance, such as survival, growth, reproduction, and milk and wool production. Management intervention is needed not only to improve the genetic potential of the animals, but also to help overcome the constraints on production set by the climate, the physical environment and the health hazards in a region.
. Knowledge of how potential environmental stressors (ambient temperature, humidity, thermal radiation, air speed) can directly and adversely affect animal performance, health and well-being when coping capabilities of the animals are exceeded is also required . The indirect consequences of weather episodes, such as their impact on feed quality and availability, must also be recognized. Factors for consideration in animal production include:
(a) Thermoneutral ranges of environmental variables for important classes of livestock in the light of weather and seasonal variations that can occur. Past weather data (both conventional and derived climate data) should be analysed and interpreted for the specific purpose of establishing risks and probabilities;
(b) Evaluation of detailed energy budgets for individual animals and groups of animals, which can indicate imbalances. Responses of animals to potential environmental stressors that can influence performance and health Intensity Duration Animal response Normal function Disrupted behaviour Impaired immune status Potential environmental stressor Animal Feedback Impaired physiology Behaviour Immunology Physiology Coping Reduced performance or health Impaired function Conditioning, adaptation, nutrition, life stage, genetics, etc.
c) Development of an understanding, preferably quantitative, of how environmental variables affect the heat budget of animals. The heat budget, which is based on heat exchanges that depend on factors should suggest how the ambient environment might be manipulated by natural and man-made shelter against wind, sun and precipitation; by site selection to increase or decrease exposure; and by artificial aids that would directly provide additional heating or cooling;
(d) The possibility that animal housing offers improved animal and economic performance. A plan to change the external macroenvironment into an acceptable microenvironment also calls for an energy budget approach, with the house and its animals as the unit, and ventilation (natural or fan assisted) as the primary control variable;
(e) The weather dependency of disease and parasitism, especially the timing and scale of the problem; whether exposure to a new infection results in disease depends, among other factors, on the number of infectious organisms taken in and the occurrence of
A water chiller is a device used to lower the temperature of water. Most chillers use refrigerant in a closed loop system to facilitate heat exchange from water where the refrigerant is then pumped to a location where the waste heat is transferred to the atmosphere. However, there are other methods in performing this action.
In hydroponics, pumps, lights and ambient heat can warm the reservoir water temperatures, leading to plant root and health problems. For ideal plant health, a chiller can be used to lower the water temperature below ambient level; 68 °F (20 °C) is a good temperature for most plants. This results in healthy root production and efficient absorption of nutrients.
In air conditioning, chilled water is often used to cool a building's air and equipment, especially in situations where many individual rooms must be controlled separately, such as a hotel. A chiller lowers water temperature to between 40 °F (4 °C) and 45 °F (7 °C) before the water is pumped to the location to be cooled.